Explanation of technology


Def RFID: RFID stands for Radio Frequency Identification and is a technology for wirelessly identifying and tracking objects using electromagnetic fields. An RFID system consists of a small radio transmitter, a radio receiver and a transmitter. When an RFID reader sends an electromagnetic pulse to an RFID tag, the tag responds by sending digital data, usually an identification number, back to the reader


Def HF: The HF (high frequency) band ranges from 3 to 30 MHz. Most HF RFID systems operate at 13.56 MHz with read ranges between 10 cm and 1 m. HF systems experience moderate sensitivity to interference.

HF RFID is commonly used for ticketing, payment, and data transfer applications.

There are several HF RFID standards in place, such as the ISO 15693 standard for tracking items, and the ECMA-340 and ISO/IEC 18092 standards for Near Field Communication (NFC), a short range technology that is commonly used for data exchange between devices. Other HF standards include the ISO/IEC 14443 A and ISO/IEC 14443 standards for MIFARE technology, which used in smart cards and proximity cards, and the JIS X 6319-4 for FeliCa, which is a smart card system commonly used in electronic money cards.


Def NFC: NFC (Near Field Communication) communicating devices (mobile phones, bus cards, card readers, etc.) do not need to be physically connected to each other, but only in close proximity to each other to exchange information. The solution works as long as the distance between the devices is no more than a few centimetres, and the short range is actually an advantage in this context. Communication technologies that work over long distances are already abundant (e.g. Wi-Fi and Bluetooth), but all these technologies require some form of interconnection method. Thanks to the short-range nature of NFC technology, there is no need for interconnection; the proximity of the devices is enough to link them together. In the mobile context, NFC technology can be used in three different ways. It can be used to allow mobiles to read passive 'NFC tags', to allow mobiles to replace plastic cards and to allow mobiles to exchange information with each other.


Def QR: A QR (Quick Read) code is a two-dimensional grid pattern used to store information that can be retrieved by scanning the QR code. Common uses include storing the address of a specific website and contact details.